Anthropos simply means "human."
It was pretty well settled above that it does not mean "human." (See posts 12 and 17 above).
Anthropos in Greek use is almost identical to "man" in English use (at least up until 1990 or so).
Go through a concordance and get a feel for how the word is used. You'd think that when they were developing English, they simply took the concept of "Anthropos" and said, "our word for that is 'man'". (I speak tongue in cheek)
I think what really happens is that as language develops, certain concepts tend to find the same type of expression. I'm familiar with Arabic and Romance languages, too, and the exact same thing happens: A singular word for "man" can apply to all people collectively, depending on context. And nobody doubts that the main meaning of the word has a masculine sense.
I saw this little article that sets out more detail: