Brothers, Fathers, Sisters, and Mothers, As I study the Westminster Standards in an attempt to better understand the sacraments, I am confused by Larger Catechism Q&A 163: Q - What are the parts of a sacrament? A - The parts of a sacrament are two: the one an outward and sensible sign, used according to Christ's own appointment; the other an inward and spiritual grace thereby signified. The Catechism says that a sacrament has two parts - the sign and the grace. This would imply that both are necessary for a full participation in the sacraments. JG Vos says this: "Those who use the sacraments wrongly, without true faith in Jesus Christ, do not really participate in the sacraments; they only participate in the outward forms or ritual of the sacraments, not in the spiritual realities of the sacraments." I'm used to thinking about sacraments as signs and seals of grace, but not as grace themselves. But here the Catechism and Vos seem to be saying that grace is a part of the sacraments. So a full participation in baptism, then, would not just be washing, but also regeneration. This seems to contradict what the standards say elsewhere. Could you help me understand what the Catechism is saying here?