Romans 9:6 But it is not as though the word of God has failed. For they are not all Israel who are descended from Israel… Well, if you were to visualize the bolded portion above, would it be: 1. Two concentric circles, the outer consists of those who are 'descended from Israel', and the inner is 'Israel.' 2. A Venn Diagram, where circle A is 'Israel,' and circle B consists of those who are 'descended from Israel,' with some overlap in the middle. If you need a visual, or an explanation of the logical foundations of the ambiguity, see the attached file, or you may view it as a Google doc. I will hold off giving a case for what I think. I just want to note that while it cannot be shown from the grammar alone that option 2 is intended, it also cannot be proven from the grammar alone that option 2 is not intended. I think this verse standing alone is a classic case of ambiguity. So lets see your arguments from the context.