I first of all really want to applaud what Dr. Strange has said here concerning us making any moral judgments on those who came before us. Of course, it is true that some events (such as the American War of Independence and the Civil War) are much more divisive than those events that appear to be more 'clear'. An example of this is World War II. Very few people would advocate that the Nazi movement was a morally good and justified movement. Interestingly though, this 20/20 vision that we have today was not the case for many German officers and soldiers of the time. From the different bibliographies I have read, many German officers considered Hitler just a lesser of two evils (the greater evil was the destruction and humiliation of Germany). They felt that Germany had not been dealt with fairly after World War I, and so there was indeed a desire for revenge and 'justice' from the Treaty of Versailles. Furthermore, there was a fear and hatred of Communism during that period that we do not experience today. From the perspective of many, Hitler was the champion against Bolshevism, and Germany was the Defender of the West against the Soviet Union. For instance, it was very interesting to read the autobiography of Hans-Ulrich Rudel, the highest decorated Luftwaffe Pilot in WWII. He could not fathom why the Western powers would seek to destroy Germany instead of stopping the spread of Bolshevism. The reason I say all of this is to point out that we cannot fully appreciate the point of view that others in history have had. We look back and quickly make the judgment that Nazi Germany was evil, and that there is no possible way that anyone could view it as good. Yet there were German citizens and soldiers (who were not Nazis) that did not view their own nation in that way. We must seek to understand their perspective, and why they had that perspective (perhaps many of them were ignorant). For instance, Hans-Ulrich Rudel (when interrogated by the British) claimed that he had never seen any concentration camps when he was flying over Eastern Europe and Poland. He felt that the Western Powers were lying when they talked about the piles of dead bodies in the camps. Interestingly, he pointed out that if excesses had been committed, that this was true in all wars. He mentioned the Boer Wars to the British (apparently concentration camps were used there). He also pointed out the firebombings of Dresden (which would have been considered immoral by today's standards). The fact that we do not have all of the information just proves how difficult it is to pass judgments upon history. Yet there is one thing we should keep in mind: It is VERY important for us as Christians to try to understand the morality of historical decisions, in order to be prepared for the future. There is no doubt that many Germans in 1914 would never have fathomed that in 20 years they would be led by a man like Hitler. That is why, as Christians, it is important that we think about and seek to clarify our relationship between us and the governing authorities, so that we are ready to make those tough decisions in the future. It is always my prayer that I never have to live under the authority of a Nero, Hitler, Stalin, etc. But these things might happen, and we need to have an idea of how we are going to act as Christians when the time comes. What if next month a State secedes from the Union again? What if the Federal Government passes a law that forces all states to recognize same-sex marriage? What if there is a state that refuses to adhere to such a law? If your state seceded, would you defend your state against the Federal Government? Would you join the Federal Government in forcing your state to bow the knee and submit? Would you try and stay neutral? These are important questions that we need to think about, so as to have an idea of what to do when those dark times come upon us. Some might say that we just have to totally submit to whoever lead us. Well, in studying World War II, I came across several interesting facts concerning the Soviet Union's treatment of Christians. Apparently at some point it was illegal to try to share the Christian faith with anyone who was 16 years old or younger. The Soviets also changed the work week in an effort to force Christians to work on the Sabbath. Even though I am not a fan of wikipedia, this article summarizes the anti-religious legislation in the Soviet Union: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_anti-religious_legislation. In conclusion it is clear that submission to the governing authorities cannot be total and absolute. We are indeed to render unto Caesar what is Caesar's. But we must also recognize that NOT ALL THINGS ARE CAESAR'S. When Caesar demands things that are rightfully only God's, Caesar must be disobeyed.