Featured What happened regarding Peter Lombard's Sentences in 1226 and 1340

Discussion in 'Church History' started by NaphtaliPress, Oct 4, 2019.

  1. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    Experts, scholars and better read folks have not come up with the answer to this. Voetius makes a comment about the condemnation of the Master of Sentences (Peter Lombard, 1096-1160) in 1226 and 1340. What could he be talking about. Lombard was condemned twice in 1170 and 1177 by Alexander III on error in Christolgy he attributed to him. Anything official after that has not turned up for the other dates. There were "lists" of doctrines not approved which Bonaventure put in his commentary on the Sentences and other such lists appear in copies of the Sentences (U of Paris made some); but I can't tie that to those dates.
     
  2. Reformed Bookworm

    Reformed Bookworm Puritan Board Junior

    The following probably won't be much help, but with a quick Logos search, this is what I am seeing:

    "Attacks on the “Sentences”; Other Works
    In spite of the cautious objectivity of the whole treatment, some of the propositions laid down in the “Sentences” were considered erroneous in after years. Mention has been made above of the attacks on Peter’s doctrine of the Trinity and his Christology. Walter of St. Victor asserts that at the Lateran Council of 1179 it was proposed to condemn the “Sentences,” but other matters prevented a discussion of the proposal. From the middle of the thirteenth century the University of Paris refused its assent to eight propositions, of a highly technical character, it is true, and Bonaventura declined to press them. Others were afterward added; but these objections did not interfere with the general popularity of the work, which had increased to such an extent by Roger Bacon’s time that he could complain (c. 1267) that lectures on it had forced those on Scriptural subjects into the background. Besides the “Sentences,” other extant works of Peter Lombard are Commentarius in psalmos Davidicos (first printed Nuremberg, 1478; in MPL, cxci. 31–1296) and Collectanea in omnes D. Pauli epistolas (first printed Paris, 1535; in MPL, cxci., cxcii.)—both collections, in the manner of medieval Catenæ (q.v.), of quotations from patristic and early medieval theologians, with occasional independent remarks. A few unpublished manuscripts, some of them of doubtful authenticity, remain in various places. Of these the most important for a complete knowledge of the author are two manuscripts, one early thirteenth century, the other fourteenth, in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris, containing twenty-five festival sermons representing a moderate type of medieval mystical theology, dominated by allegorical exegesis, but making some excellent practical points. Extracts from them are given by F. Protois (P. Lombard, son épôque, sa vie, ses écrits et son influence, pp. 126–147, Paris, 1881)."

    and

    "After his death, one of the propositions contained in it (“Christus, secundum quod est homo, non est aliquid”) was condemned by pope Alexander III."

    After work, I can spend a little more time investigating. I do remember Justo Gonzalez discussing this in the first volume of his Church history.
     
  3. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    Thanks Robert. I had seen that but useful to have it here in one place. Any other light shed is much appreciated. Not to complicate things, there is also the possibility there are typos in either or both dates, but they seem rather precise otherwise.
     
  4. Pergamum

    Pergamum Ordinary Guy (TM)

    Last edited: Oct 4, 2019
  5. Reformed Bookworm

    Reformed Bookworm Puritan Board Junior

    Last edited: Oct 4, 2019
  6. Pergamum

    Pergamum Ordinary Guy (TM)

  7. Reformed Bookworm

    Reformed Bookworm Puritan Board Junior

    It appears as they are completed on the CD. The website is a bit confusing.
     
  8. Reformed Bookworm

    Reformed Bookworm Puritan Board Junior

    I cannot find an email on the website to save my life. I'm going to contact them to get a copy.
     
  9. Reformed Covenanter

    Reformed Covenanter Puritan Board Doctor

    I have read those four volumes (borrowed them from a university library); they are good to read, but a bit pricey. There is also comparatively little of Peter Lombard's own thoughts in them, as he is often citing Augustine and others.
     
  10. py3ak

    py3ak They're stalling and plotting against me Staff Member

    Giulio Silano has done a very usable and complete translation of The Sentences, linked to above, and it's a very profitable work to consult from a historical point of view.

    I don't have the book available to me at the moment, but Philipp W. Rosemann, The Story of a Great Medieval Book: Peter Lombard's Sentences traces the reception history of the Sentences, including controversies, commentaries, and poetic paraphrases.
     
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  11. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    Thanks Ruben. I'm looking at the Google preview and no hits on those specific dates so I'm wondering if they are wrong some way?
     
  12. py3ak

    py3ak They're stalling and plotting against me Staff Member

    I suppose it's possible -- perhaps especially if they are in Roman numerals. Do you know what source Voetius was drawing on for that remark? It could be that the error was not his but whomever he was following.
     
  13. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    He gives no reference; they are Arabic as he gives them.
     
  14. bookslover

    bookslover Puritan Board Doctor

    The bibliographical data:

    The Sentences by Peter Lombard; translated from the Latin by Giulio Silano; Medieval Sources in Translation series; 4 volumes (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 2007-2010).
     
  15. yeutter

    yeutter Puritan Board Senior

    1226 and 1340 do not match the dates of Roman Catholic Church Councils.
    The Fourth Lateran Council was held in 1215. They brought the Marionites into union with Rome. They condemned the Albigenses and Joachim of Fiore but not Peter Lombard.
    The First Council of Lyons was held in 1245. This council was more political than ecclesiastical. They attempted to excommunicate Emperor Fredrick II.
    The Second Council of Lyons was held in 1274. They attempted to impose the filioque on the East.
    The Council of Vienne was held from 1311 - 1313. Clement V who claimed to be Bishop of Rome, but was I think seated in Avignon, called this council. The Western Church was seriously divided between 1309 and 1377, with one Bishop of Rome sitting in Avignon, under the control of the French monarch, in this case Philip IV of France. Philip was present as was Edward II of England and James II of Spain [Aragon]
    The next council was the Council of Pisa in 1409. They tried to end the Western schism, but failed.
    The next council was the Council of Constance from 1414 - 1418 which ended the Western schism. They condemned Wycliffe and Huss but not Lombard
     
  16. py3ak

    py3ak They're stalling and plotting against me Staff Member

    I don't know, Chris. I've looked where I can think to find information about it, including the introduction to the translation of the Sentences, but what gets mentioned is Alexander and 4th Lateran. There might have been criticism outside of a church council, of course, but you'd think anything as significant as a papal bull would be fairly well-known.
     
  17. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    True; thanks for looking Ruben, all. Voetius says that later people who opposed God’s simplicity arose from time to time, and scholastics and ecclesiastical persons promptly suppressed and condemned their errors and he then says to see the condemnations subjected against the Master of the Sentences in 1226 and 1340.

     
  18. py3ak

    py3ak They're stalling and plotting against me Staff Member

    You could ask Marcia Colish -- she's one of the leading authorities on Peter.

    [email protected]
     
  19. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    Thanks Ruben. I'll pass that along to the translator I'm working with.
     
  20. Phil D.

    Phil D. Puritan Board Junior

    Chris, I'd be interested in knowing, should you find something out.
     
  21. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    I'll report back here if any resolution is found to this puzzle.
     
  22. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    I still have no resolution for the later 1340 date but some facts may help on the 1226. Here is what I wrote up for the translator and maybe he'll come up with something amongst his researchers.
    The subject for both dates must be on the "Christ as man is not anything" or some error of on the Trinity (the Holy Spirity is charity?). The 1340 may have to do with something from the Parisian doctors and the "not approved" lists attached to editions of the Sentences, but Bonaventure's first such list is too late (born 1221), or it has to do with some commentator on the Sentences like Peter of Bergamo who out of Aquinas warned the reader that "The Master of Sentences is not endowed with authority." Which most read as a high censure of sorts. But Bergamo is too late at 1475. See Synan, Brother Thomas, the Master, and the Masters, in St. Thomas Acquinas 1274-1974 Commemorative Studies, 2 vols (PIMS, 1974), 2.221.
    On the 1226 there are at least some better suppositions. The decretals of Gregory came into use in 1226-7 according to this, p. 89: https://books.google.com/books?id=A...eter Lombard&pg=PA89#v=onepage&q=1227&f=false
    Alexander III had condemned the view that "Christ, according to his being a man, is not anything" in 1170 and then again in a letter in 1177 and this letter found its way into Gregory's Decretals. According to this: https://books.google.com/books?id=H...retals lombard sentences not approved&f=false

    I don't know if this date of 1226 for the Decretals coming into use was known to Voetius, but this is about all I can find to make that date work with on the subject in question.
     
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  23. Phil D.

    Phil D. Puritan Board Junior

  24. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

  25. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    Yes; thanks Phil. I had not come back to update this but I did find that 1226 list. I have found a couple of 16th century editions citing these so while it may have been another source, Voetius certainly had at least those sources to draw this from.
     
  26. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    I should add, that simplifies the 1226 considerable over my theory above, though it may reference the same prior things of Alexander III.
     
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  27. py3ak

    py3ak They're stalling and plotting against me Staff Member

    I don't think it can be about the Christological nihilism. I haven't had time to look through the whole thing, but the different headings don't seem exceptionally relevant to that:
    (Very roughly)
    • Errors concerning God
    • Errors concerning angels or intelligences
    • Errors concerning soul and intellect
    • Errors concerning will or free choice
    • Errors concerning the world and the eternal world
    • Errors concerning heaven and stars
    • Errors concerning the necessary occurrence of things
    • Errors concerning accidents
    • Errors concerning holy Scripture
    • Errors concerning faith and sacraments
    • Errors concerning rapture
    • Errors concerning vices and virtues
    • Errors concerning resurrection
    • Errors concerning felicity or beatitude
     
  28. NaphtaliPress

    NaphtaliPress Administrator Staff Member

    Concerning God may be sufficient. The translator may be able to further refine this. But this is over the target I think give the specific dates.
     

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