I bolded some different parts of Bahnsens' words to emphasize an opposite understanding, and a different THEY, who he is opposing. I am taking his to be Dispensationalists who often held to a carnal christian heresy. I think this passage is as clear as we must expect; though I am no fan of Bahsen's theonomy or reconstruction as it showed up in his church and to the members I knew, in spite of his telling me holiness and gospel is 1st and the way to reformation. Here he clearly seeks to defend against works being a 2nd step or coming later. This was the carnal Christian heresy so prevalent in our lives, being taught and promoted by Dallas T.S. and CCC etc. He says, the problem is when I try to make sure people know true faith produces the fruit of good works, that they would see it as justifying and I don't mean that. He tries to separate faith and works in the regenerating act, yet show they are inseparable in the immediate life and experience of the believer. As the "Work" of repentance springs immediately from converting faith. This may be indiscernible to the eye of man, yet theologically we would say the faith gave rise to or the works are a reflex action from the faith. What are proper ACTS of saving faith? Robert Shaw's, The Reformed Faith Of saving Faith Section II.–By this faith, a Christian believeth to be true whatsoever is revealed in the Word, for the authority of God himself speaking therein; and acteth differently, upon that which each particular passage thereof containeth; yielding obedience to the commands, trembling at the threatenings, and embracing the promises of God for this life, and that which is to come. But the principle acts of saving faith are, accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone for justification, sanctification, and eternal life, by virtue of the covenant of grace. Exposition 1. The genera1 object of divine faith is the whole Word of God. As faith, in general, is an assent to truth upon testimony, so divine faith is an assent to divine truth upon divine testimony. Saving faith, therefore, includes an assent of the heart to all the truths revealed in the Word of God, whether they relate to the law or to the gospel, and that, not upon the testimony of any man or Church, nor because they appear agreeable to the dictates of natural reason, but on the ground of the truth and authority of God himself, speaking in the Scriptures, and evidencing themselves, by their own distinguishing light and power, to the mind. 2. (deleted for space) An Exposition of the Westminster Confession of Faith 3. The principal acts of saving faith are, accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ. Romanists make faith to be nothing more than "a bare naked assent to the truth revealed in the Word." This notion was strenuously opposed by our Reformers, and is renounced in the National Covenant of Scotland, under the name of a "general and doubtsome faith;" yet, many Protestants, in modern times, represent saving faith as nothing more than a simple assent to the doctrinal truths recorded in Scripture, and as exclusively an act of the understanding. But, although saving faith gives full credit to the whole Word of God, and particularly to the testimony of God concerning his Son Jesus Christ, as has been already stated, yet, its principal acts are "accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ." True faith is the belief of a testimony; but it must correspond to the nature of the testimony believed. Were the gospel a mere statement of speculative truths, or a record of facts in which we have no personal interest, then, a simple assent of the mind to these truths–the mere crediting of these facts, would constitute the faith of the gospel. But the gospel is not a mere statement of historical facts, or of abstract doctrines respecting the Saviour; it contains in it a free offer of Christ, and of salvation through him, to sinners of every class, who hear it, for their acceptance. Saving faith, therefore, that it may correspond to the testimony believed, must include the cordial acceptance or reception of Christ, as tendered to us in the gospel. As Christ is exhibited in Scripture under venous characters and similitudes, so faith in him is variously denominated. It is expressed by coming to him–by looking unto him–by ,fleeing to him for refuge–by eating his flesh and drinking his blood–by receiving him, and by resting upon him. It is to be observed, that the terms employed in our Confession do not denote different acts of faith, but are only different expressions of the same act. Believing on Christ is called a receiving of him, in reference to his being presented to poor sinners, as the gift of God to them; and it is styled a resting on him, because he is revealed in the gospel as a sure foundation, on which a sinner may lay the weight of his eternal salvation with the firmest confidence. It is manifest, that all the figurative descriptions of saving faith in Scripture imply a particular application of Christ by the soul, or a trusting in Christ for salvation to one's self in particular; and this is what some have called the appropriation of faith. It is no less evident, that in the phraseology of Scripture, faith is not simply an assent of the understanding, but implies an act of volition, accepting the Saviour and relying on him for salvation. This does not proceed upon any previous knowledge which the sinner has of his election; nor upon any persuasion that Christ died intentionally for him more than for others, for it is impossible to come to the knowledge of these things prior to believing; nor does it proceed upon the persuasion that Christ died equally for all men, and therefore for him in particular; nor upon the perception of any good qualities in himself to distinguish him from others; but it proceeds solely upon the free, unlimited offer and promise of the gospel to the chief of sinners. 4. That the true believer receives and rests upon Christ alone for salvation. This distinguishes the true believer from such as rest their hope of salvation on the general mercy of God, without any respect to the mediation of Christ, or upon their own works of righteousness, or upon the righteousness of Christ and their own works conjoined. 5. That the true believer receives and rests upon Christ for a complete salvation. He trusts in Christ for salvation not only from wrath, but also from sin–not only for salvation from the guilt of sin, but also from its pollution and power–not only for happiness hereafter, but also for holiness here. In the language of the Confession, he rests upon Christ "for justification, sanctification, and eternal life;" and that "by virtue of the covenant of grace;" that is, as these blessings are exhibited and secured in that covenant. ------- bolds above are mine So when we speak of works, or acts we must use care to be specific which we refer to. But there are properly some things called acts which are included with and or a direct result of saving faith. None of which are meritorious. Shaw seems clear to call these acts, not multiple but different names for one act. As opposed to good works. We often observe in some people, at what appears to us to be the time of conversion, through definitive sanctification which also comes with saving faith or is a part of it, bringing certain knowledge, and repentance such that a person may discontinue certain sins and may begin to do good acts and works immediately. It may show up differently in each person as the Spirit works in them uniquely. And we cannot so precisely separate in our experience that which is a result of definitive sanctification and that which is from ongoing sanctification which occurs in that next second after conversion. I think we should use care to not take someone's particular words, like in the case of Bahnsen, who may be seeking to make a distinction against an error of his time, with language one may use at another time to avoid being confused with another error. Like FV which is prevalent now and not so much then. It would be good if we had a set of precise questions to determine a man's orthodoxy or not. Like: Are these good works that come with saving faith meritorious?