Rev. Winzer, what are the implications of that for contemporary society? Should governing authorities FORBID False Religion then? Should Civil Authorities forbid Idolatry then? And How? Still my questions on my first post. And how could Civil Authorities say what is False Religion and True Religion? And if Civil Authorities have that right concerning True Religion, what happens when they are deceived to think a False Religion as being the True one? For instance what are the implications when Christians live under an Islamic State (the xiite islam like Iran actually promotes a theocracy, but the question applies to the sunite islam too ) where there is no Religious freedom? Should they under Islamic Civil Authorities still obey in the religious sphere the commandments of Romans 13 Let every soul be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and the authorities that exist are appointed by God. 2 Therefore whoever resists the authority resists the ordinance of God, and those who resist will bring judgment on themselves. or Titus 3:1 Remind them to be subject to rulers and authorities, to obey. Is not rather that in that situation they should rather say like Peter: We ought to obey God rather than men. Acts 5 Isn’t Constantinianism and Erastinianism precisely the extremes we should keep ourselves from? in my opinion the only way to avoid those 2 extremes is to understand that God rules both society and the church as different independent spheres (2 Kingdoms) and trough different means (Special Revelation / Natural Revelation + Natural Law + Providence). And while we, Christians, as are members of God’s Kingdom, the Visible Church, we will only see the complete integration of both spheres in consummation, that's why we pray for the coming of the Kingdom with thirst of final complete aboslute justice. Till then we must also avoid the anabaptistic pietistic tendency to withdraw from our role in this world, because we are also citizens of Civil Society, we should commit in our jobs, in our civic duties, in our marriages (also a temporary institution), in our daily activities to be a positive influence in this world. Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s Luke 20:25 That’s the way I’ve been reading Kuyper, which is in my opinion quite different from the way Reconstructionists and Theonomists try to read him.